Factors Affecting the Economic Environment of Business

by Hunter Taylor; Updated January 16, 2018
Businesspeople talking in hallway

The economic environment of business is affected by internal and external factors. An internal factor that affects the business environment is the cost of labor, materials, processes and procedures. Internal factors can be improved through company projects. On the other hand, external factors can also affect a company's business environment and the business has less control over these factors. The primary influences on a business are: political, economical, social, legal, technological and environmental.

Political Factors

U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., USA

The political environment affects the economic environment of businesses. Legislators at the local, state and federal levels may provide incentives or tax breaks to companies or they can impose regulations that restrict business transactions. In the latter case, for example, if a political body states that a company must include a certain chemical in its product, the cost of the product differs. The company passes those costs on to the customer in the form of higher prices. The customer must determine whether he wants to purchase that product. If he does not purchase the product, then the company does not receive the revenue. If a large number of customers decide not to purchase the product, the company may need to layoff employees.

Economic Factors

Salesman showing man a car

The larger economic environment of a society is a factor that can affect a company's business environment. During a recession, consumers spend less on optional items such as cars and appliances. As a result, the business environment suffers. On the other hand, if the economic environment is one of prosperity, consumers are more likely to spend money, not just on necessities, but larger items as well.

Social Factors

Female fashion designer holding paper and pencil, looking up

Social factors that affect the economic environment of a business are the cultural influences of the time. For example, a fashion designer that creates bell bottom, striped pants will not succeed in an environment where straight-leg, solid colored pants are desired. A social environment that tends to be more conservative will not support styles that appear to be trendy. The fashion designer's business will suffer if he does not change the clothing style. The same would apply to the manufacturers that produce and stores that sell these wares.

Legal Factors

Often, a business will need to change how it operates for legal reasons. This is often done when a company's lawyers anticipate a change in legislation, or it may be due to lawsuits, already filed or anticipated. For example, if a part in a machine is found to be defective, the company may need to issue a recall. If other companies in the same industry are being sued over something like a data breach of confidential information, a business may need to change how information is collected and stored.

Technological Factors

close-up of a businessman using a mobile phone

Innovation and technology affect business environments. As technology advances, a business is forced to keep pace. For example, when computers were first invented, they were the size of a room. Users were forced to employ punch cards to perform basic functions. Today, computers that are much more powerful can fit into the palm of a hand. Businesses that do not keep up with technology risk increased costs of production and higher prices. If the company's cost to produce a product or service outpaces competitors, the company may soon find itself out of business.

Environmental Factors

The environment can have a direct and indirect affect on how a business operates. Businesses in the food industry are routinely affected by the environment. Droughts or disease can affect pricing models and even the ability of food processors, grocery stores and restaurants in obtaining sufficient supplies to meet consumer demands. Indirect environmental factors can affect any business by creating changes in societal expectations and government laws and regulations in efforts to protect the environment. For example, in 2016, California citizens voted for a law to ban the use of single-use plastic bags, affecting the majority of retailers in that state.

About the Author

Hunter Taylor has been a freelance writer since 2005. She has authored articles for the "The Social Contract Journal," as well as newspapers, legislative magazines and e-newsletters for state legislators and organizations. Taylor holds a Master of Business Administration from Shorter University.

Photo Credits

  • Jupiterimages/Comstock/Getty Images
bibliography-icon icon for annotation tool Cite this Article