Most training design models contain five steps. One of the most commonly used models is the ADDIE model, which stands for analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Analysis stands for needs analysis, where the need for the training is studied. Design is the phase where the training program is outlined and planned. Development is where the training is rolled out to the field in whatever form the design phase stipulated. Evaluation concludes the process and measures how effective the training program was at achieving its goals.
Analysis is the first phase of the training model. During this phase, trainers analyze all aspects of a training problem and begin seeking answers while proposing a solution. Timelines are established, training objectives are created, and first outlines of the training program begin to take shape. Potential causes and possible solutions are explored, and initial budgets are proposed. Barriers to success are investigated, and the target audience is analyzed. Great training solutions must begin with analysis.
Design is the phase of the training model where learning objectives and outcomes are determined. The core of the potential training solution is created and explored. Storyboards and initial prototypes of the training solution are proposed and reviewed with the client. Feedback is received, and initial training solutions begin to take shape. Types of training solutions, classroom, web-based and blended learning programs are discussed and explored. Much like an architect's renderings, the blueprint for your training solution begins to take shape.
Development is the phase of the training design model where the training program is created and written. Whether the program is classroom-based or designed to be taken online, materials are created and produced in this phase. The design phase produced the outline or blueprint, but it is in this portion of the training model where everything comes together in production. Supporting materials are produced, trainers are trained, and the target audience is notified of the training dates.
Your training program is delivered to your employees in the implementation phase of the training model. Classes are taught or taken online. Students receive their training and practice how to use their new skills. Materials and training products are distributed to participants, and classes begin. Initial results are measured, and the program begins to take shape in your company. If the preceding phases are conducted properly, implementation runs smoothly and the training is taken and received as it was intended.
Evaluation completes the training model. Measuring the results of your training program begins during the implementation phase. Learning is measured after each class, and results are analyzed. Evaluation of the entire program is conducted after all the training is completed. Measurements and feedback determine whether adjustments to the initial design are needed, and results are reviewed with the client. Students are contacted and instructors, designers, developers and anyone involved with the program meet for a "lessons learned" review. The model then begins again.
- "The Adult Learner, A Neglected Species", Malcolm Knowles; 1984
- "Making Instruction Work"; Robert F.Mager; 1988
- "Designing Training and Development Systems"; William R.Tracey"; 1984
Based in Bethlehem, Pa., Kermit Burley has been writing articles for over 30 years. His articles have appeared in "Training" magazine, as well as numerous company publications throughout the course of his career. Burley holds a Masters of Education in instructional design from Penn State and is certified as a trainer and instructional designer.