The types of recruitment and selection in jobs really come down to internal versus external recruitment. There are various ways to achieve each, but either the job is filled by someone within the company or someone who is hired from outside of it. Both have their benefits, and neither is better than the other; it’s really down to hiring lead time, the budget available, tasks required and skill sets needed.
The types of recruitment methods used for hiring staff internally include:
- Transfers: Often, qualified candidates are just a department away in large companies. Perhaps they have an array of skill sets of which only a few get used in their current position. Joining a company at an entry-level position is generally a strategic move toward hopefully, eventually, getting transferred or, better yet, getting promoted.
- Promotions: If a new managerial position requires skills acquired through company experience, it makes the most sense to promote from within. This means being able to skip the head-hunting process and save some pennies on training in the fundamentals.
- Rehiring Former Employees: It’s not uncommon for employees to leave because of cutbacks or for an opportunity elsewhere, among other reasons. It’s also not uncommon for former employees to return to a job when offered the chance to do so. As they say, the devil you know is better than the devil you don’t – and that applies to both sides of this equation. Plus, bringing someone back with little to no training needed saves money, time and headaches.
- Previous Applicants: Often, hiring comes down to a gut feeling between the most qualified candidates, and it’s not unusual for HR personnel to feel as though "a good one got away." If a position comes available in the near future after a hiring process completes, revisiting already-screened applicants saves a lot of time and money.
- Employee Referrals: While this is technically an outside hire, it’s sourced inside the company. Employees know what the job entails, and they may have a good idea of someone who’d be ideal for getting it done.
- Posted Opportunity: Very common with large companies and government agencies, a position is advertised throughout the organization, giving anyone who wants to apply the chance to throw their hat in the ring.
The types of recruitment process used for external hiring include:
- Employment Agencies: Employment agencies generally do all the screening and processing of potential hires. There's a hefty fee associated with this, but also likely a satisfaction guarantee. Despite the fee, this is a time- and money-saver, taking the pressure off the company for the intensive resume-reviewing, interviewing and testing that may be involved.
- Advertising: A classic method, whether the newfangled way through social media, job sites or old-school through newspapers, advertising is a great way to get the message out while improving branding and showing the company values off to the public.
- Hiring Fairs: When there are multiple positions open or expansion is a possibility in the future, a hiring fair is a great way to meet potential candidates. One downfall is that extroverts shine at hiring fairs while introverts, who are often creative and can be fantastic in specific roles, tend to be overlooked.
- Direct Recruitment: When there’s a known candidate at a competing company or a notable student graduating soon, sometimes they’re pursued and wooed to join the firm.
- Professional Organizations: For engineering, law and other careers that have professional associations, it’s often easy to hire in concert with the organization. Perhaps they’ll refer someone specific or post the opportunity. However it happens, it’s someone from a credible organization with a promising background.