Key Elements of the Communication Process

by Jennifer VanBaren ; Updated September 26, 2017
Business conference

In order for communication to be effective, it should contain seven key elements. Communication is processed verbally or in writing by an audience. The audience may consist of one person or a thousand. When you want to effectively communicate a message to someone or to a group of people, whether it is spoken or written, include these elements within your message.


The communication process should contain a good structure. This element of communication consists of creating an opening, a body and close for speeches and letters. An opening informs the audience about the subject, the body explains it and the closing ties it all together.


The second element in the communication process is clarity. The message a speaker gives must be clear allowing the audience to understand the topic and its purpose.

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Consistency is also an important element in communication. A person communicating a message must ensure that it does not contain inconsistencies that would cause confusion to the listeners.


Medium refers to the way a message is communicated. Messages are communicated many ways including through letters, phone calls, memos, speeches, voice mails and through television broadcasts. Choosing the right medium for communication is vital and should be chosen according to budget and purpose. When choosing a medium, determine the best, and most cost effective, way to get your message across.


Another vital aspect of communication is relevancy. Determine if the message you are giving is relevant to the audience that is receiving it. If the message is about financial statistics, ensure that the audience will understand the ratios and data you are presenting.

Primacy and Recency

An audience does not always comprehend an entire message, but instead may remember details only from the beginning and ending of a speech or conversation. This concept is called "primacy and recency." When communicating a message, keep this element in mind. Offer the most important details you would like the audience to grasp at the beginning and end of the message.

The Psychological Rule of Seven Plus or Minus Two

According to Lee Hopkins, a business communication’s author, psychologists believe that humans retain information in their brains in clusters. Because of this, this rule was created and states that at any time people can only remember between five and nine pieces of information at one time. This is calculated by beginning with the seven and adding or subtracting two.

About the Author

Jennifer VanBaren started her professional online writing career in 2010. She taught college-level accounting, math and business classes for five years. Her writing highlights include publishing articles about music, business, gardening and home organization. She holds a Bachelor of Science in accounting and finance from St. Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Ind.

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