When it comes to establishing the strategy for running a company, business owners are faced with a binary decision: top-down management or bottom-up management. Benefits and drawbacks exist for both strategies, and a business owner who makes the wrong choice can cause workplace disorganization, which could negatively affect productivity.
The Elements of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategic Management
With a top-down strategic approach, the executive team of the business establishes plans and goals, and then communicates that strategy to middle managers, who then become tasked with executing that strategy through rank-and-file employees.
In contrast, a bottom-up strategic approach takes advantage of the specialized skills and talents of the rank-and-file employees, and encourages them to communicate ideas and plans to middle managers, who then pass the ideas along to the executive team.
The Advantages of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategic Management
A primary advantage of a top-down approach is that it maintains a chain of command that provides stability and direction in the workplace. Another advantage is that when companies have experienced and knowledgeable executives, this approach can streamline the decision-making process and save time and money.
Businesses that adopt the bottom-up approach can also reap benefits because they can mine the expertise and creativity of their entire team. Rank-and-file workers are in the best position to understand the barriers to increased productivity and efficiency. As a result, they can offer practical solutions that are often effective. Bottom-up strategic management can also build morale in the workplace because it empowers workers to develop solutions to problems and to introduce initiatives based on their expertise.
The Disadvantages of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategic Management
Although many companies choose the top-down approach, there are several drawbacks, including the fact that executives can ignore or fail to seek the input of talented and creative middle managers and employees. As a result, effective ideas and initiatives that could improve productivity and efficiency never filter up to those with the power to implement them. Another disadvantage is that executives may make decisions that are not practical or easy to implement, which can limit employee buy-in and create a toxic work environment.
The primary disadvantage of a bottom-up approach is that it can become difficult for middle managers to sort through the number of ideas and proposals to determine which are viable. Also, worker morale may suffer if executives reject a majority of the ideas, or if executives decide not to implement the ideas precisely the way they were conceived.
Choosing Between the Two Approaches
Businesses that feature regimented levels of management are most conducive to the top-down approach that maintains organizational discipline. On the other hand, businesses with a freer flowing management structure often find that a bottom-up approach is ideal. For example, Google has a loose management structure that encourages its smart, forward-thinking workers to submit ideas and improvements to senior executives without having to go through a rigorous vetting process.
In some instances, business owners may find that a combination of the two approaches is the most effective strategy to pursue.